The bands at 1120 cm-1 is characteristic of aromatic C-H in S units of lignin molecule and the C-O of primary alcohol at 1044 cm-1. [ Links ], WANG, M., WEI, L., ZHAO, T. Cure study of addition-cure-type and condensation-addition-type phenolic resins. 2015; Fernandez-Rodriguez et al. The pH value from the instrument was recorded. The pyrolysis final temperature was set to 500 °C at a heating rate of 15 °C.min-1 and maintained for 60 min. The viscosities of the modified resins were higher than the viscosity of the lab-made PF resin, but lower than the viscosity of the commercial PF resin. Phenolic glue is a synthetic polymer made by combining phenol with formaldehyde. “Lignins for phenol replacement in novolac-type phenolic formulations. 2007, 2008), or kenaf (Yan2009), and agricultural waste such as sugar cane bagasse and wheat straw (Hoareau et al. It has been noted that tannin from bark is rich in phenolic compounds and could therefore absorb the free formaldehyde. Fuel Processing Technology, v. 91, p. 942-950, 2010. 2011; Diop et al. The bio-oil is a mixture of about 20 types of major and minor organic compounds including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols and carboxylic acids, derived primarily from the lignin in the feedstock (ASLAN et al., 2015). For the determination of bending properties of 6 different types of plywood panels, 20 specimens (10 specimens parallel to the plywood face grain and 10 specimens perpendicular to the plywood face grain) from each plywood type, in total 120 specimens, were tested. DOI: 10.1002/app.2119, Alonso, M. V., Oliet, M., Rodriguez, F., Astarloa, G., and Echeverria, J. M. (2004). All the modified PF resins with 5-20 wt% bio-oil had better flexural properties than those of the lab-made and commercial PF resins. Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant 115O453, ALMA, M.H., BASTURK, M.A., SHIRAISHI, N. Cocondensation of NaOH-catalyzed liquefied wood wastes, phenol, and formaldehyde for the production of resol-type adhesives. In this last group, only the soda lignins have a short-term potential for industrial availability. Different modified phenol formaldehyde resins were prepared and characterized using alkaline rice straw lignin structurally modified by hydroxymethylation reaction. 1994; Alonso et al. Formaldehyde Regulations and Structural Wood Products Structural wood products such as plywood and oriented strand board (OSB) are manufactured to meet stringent product standards, including Voluntary Product Standard PS 1-07 for Structural Plywood and Voluntary Product Standard PS 2, Performance Standard for Wood-Based Structural-Use Panels. The changes in functional groups of resins were determined according to the results of the FT-IR spectra of modified resins as compared to commercial and lab-made PF resin. The presence of bio-oil during the synthesis process of a biopolymer clearly affects the viscosity of the resulting resins. “Optimization of experimental variables to modify lignin fromEucalyptus globulus under alkaline catalysis,” BioResources 11(1), 1828-1842. “Lignin phenol formaldehyde resoles: The impact of lignin type on adhesive properties,” BioResources 11(3), 6727-6741. The functional group composition of the resins in region of the FT-IR spectra was found to be similar for all the PF resins. The main peaks identification of compounds was performed by using GC/MS was presented in Figure 2. Estimated response surface for viscosity at S/PL=1.2, L(%) vs F/PL. The data acquisition system used was G1035A software with a NIST library. TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLYWOOD BONDED WITH PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESOL RESIN SYNTHESIZED WITH BIO-OIL, PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÓGICAS DE COMPENSADO DE MADEIRA COLADA COM RESINA DE RESOL FENOL-FORMALDEÍDO SINTETIZADA COM BIO-ÓLEO. (2007). 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