Top 5 of the World’s Most Wasteful Megacities, 25+ Spectacular Facts About the Amazon Rainforest That You May Not Know About, deforestation are also the leading causes, Can You Recycle Shaving Cream Cans? LAND DEGRADATION : Soil quality decline is one of the main causes of land degradation and it considered to be responsible for 84% of the every diminishing acres (FAO, 2011). This quiz looks not only at the causes of soil erosion, but also the effects - such as how it damages ecosystems. Hence, the contributing factors to soil quality decline such as overgrazing, poor tillage methods, and deforestation are also the leading causes of desertification characterized by droughts and arid conditions. Due to shortage of land, increase of population and economic pressure, the farmers have adopted intensive cropping patterns of commercial crops in place of more balanced cereal-legume rotations. The nation that destroys its soil, destroys itself. Table 27.6 presents the area under different types of soil degradation in different years: The factors which affect soil micro flora and fauna also reduce the biological or microbial activity of soil adversely. It affects global climate through alterations in water cycle and energy balances and disruptions of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycles. Soil degradation is the loss of land’s production capacity in terms of loss of soil fertility, soil biodiversity, and degradation. Secondly, it covers the soil in an impermeable layer of concrete that amplifies the amount of surface runoff which results in more erosion of the topsoil. These factors reduce the yield. Water Erosion 2. The land is commonly altered from its natural landscape when it rids its physical composition from soil degradation. In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture. The erodible material is almost devoid of organic matter and lacks in mineral plant nutrients. The rate of siltation in many water reservoirs are significantly high. Soil erosion decreases soil fertility, which can negatively affect crop yields. The outcomes of soil erosion and quality decline are widely irreversible. To fill this knowledge gap, soil degradation simply means the decline in soil quality which comes about due to aspects such as improper land use, agriculture, and pasture, urban or industrial purposes. Degraded soils which result in poor or no production are also called problem soils. Avoiding deforestation completely is an uphill task. The slope of the land. 6. In highly productive areas, canal irrigation is responsible for a rapid rise in water table. Soil degradation is a complex phenomenon derived by interaction between natural and socio economic factors. Soil is chiefly polluted by industrial and mining activities. (And Are They Reusable), Are Light Bulbs Recyclable? Therefore, the misuse or excessive use of fertilizers increases the rate of soil degradation by destroying the soil’s biological activity and builds up of toxicities through incorrect fertilizer use. A true environmentalist by heart ❤️. Nearly 10 million hectares of arable land are lost to erosion and other forms of soil degradation every year [1].. Countries all over the world are battling with worrisome sight of deepening gullies crisscrossing the landscape and barren fields stripped of the fertile topsoil. Deterioration of the water quality: the increase in the turbidity of water and the contribution of nitrogen and of phosphorus can result in eutrophication. These include erosion, deforestation and overgrazing, flooding and water logging, salination, desertification and ill- planned urbanization. This poor condition of pasture lands is due to excessive grazing. Chemical factors such as the depletion of nutrients or the toxicity due to acidity or alkalinity (salinization) or waterlogging. The topography of the land may also be a cause of soil erosion. Founded Conserve Energy Future with the sole motto of providing helpful information related to our rapidly depleting environment. ii. Excessive soil degradation thus gives rise to immediate and long-term impacts which translate into serious global environmental headaches. The complex forms of the fertilizer’s chemicals are also responsible for denaturing essential soil minerals, giving rise to nutrient losses from the soil. In extreme cases, soil becomes unfit for cultivation. This may include activities such as the addition of plant residues to degraded soils and improving range management. Preventing salinization in the first place is thus an environmentally friendly means of offering a solution to soil degradation. In India pasture land area is decreasing day by day due to expansion of agricultural land. The farmers maintain productivity of soil by applying chemical fertilizers but make less use of organic manures. When the water dries up, the salts are left on the upper surface as a crust or layer. Overgrazing, cutting of timber trees, collection of fuel wood, shifting cultivation and encroachment of forest areas are some of the important factors responsible for the loss of vegetation cover on the soil which ultimately causes soil erosion. What are antibiotics? Soil and land degradation are interrelated issues and often come up in the same context. Soil degradation is a complex phenomenon derived by interaction between natural and socio economic factors. About 40% of the world’s agricultural land is severely diminished in quality because of erosion and the use of chemical fertilizers, which prevent the land from regenerating. The estimated annual loss of different crops due to soil degradation rangs from Rs. A major part of soil depletion is due to the lands over-use and the products that we pour on it. Trafficking (by animals as well as by vehicles) and cultivation are the primary causes of this form of soil degradation. Summary 10. Soil fertility is reduced due to prolonged intensive cultivation. Overgrazing and cultivation practices that are not adapted to local environments are the principal causes of soil degradation. The main reasons for unproductiveness or degradation of soils are as follows: Most of the Indian soils are deficient in nutrients and organic matter. However, deforestation can be cut down and this can create an impressive way of reshaping and restoring forests and vegetation cover. The costs of preventing salinization are incredibly cheaper than the reclamation projects in salinized areas. Soil degradation is the decline in soil condition caused by its improper use or poor management, usually for agricultural, industrial or urban purposes. 15 Exceptional Reasons Why Wildlife Conservation is Important Today, World’s 10 Most Threatened Biodiversity Hotspots, Causes, Effects and Solutions to Overgrazing, Causes, Effects and Solutions to Combat Desertification, Are Condoms Biodegradable? Most of the soil eroded from the land together with the chemical fertilizers and pesticides utilized in agricultural fields are discharged into waterways and streams. According to an estimate of 1992, every year 20.2 million tonnes of NPK is removed by growing crops. The water-logging and salinity cause a loss of Rs. Foremost of all, it denudates the soil’s vegetation cover, compacts soil during construction, and alters the drainage pattern. Depletion of nutrients and soil organic matter and erosion are the principal forms of soil degradation. Are Wood-burning Stoves Bad For The Environment? Effects of Wind Erosion 6. The tillage on agricultural lands is one of the main factors since it breaks up the soil into finer particles, which increase erosion rates. 89 billion to 232 billion which represent a loss of 11 to 26 per cent yield (Table 27.6). Human activities are the primary cause of soil pollution and land degradation. Biological factors which affect the micro-flora and reduce the microbial activity of the soil. Compost Pile vs Bin – Which One is Right For You? depletion of nutrients or the toxicity due to acidity or alkalinity (salinization) or water logging. Share Your PPT File. 2. #3 Soil erosion gets worse The soil quality decline is exuberated more and more as a result of the mechanization of agriculture that gives room for deep plowing, reduction of plant cover, and the formation of the hardpan. Also, preserving the integrity of guarded areas can significantly reduce demonstration. Industrial activities, on the other hand, release toxic effluents and material wastes into the atmosphere, land, rivers, and groundwater that eventually pollute the soil and as such, it impacts on soil quality. (And 3 Ways to Dispose of). What causes Soil Pollution? The latest data revealed that erosion has rendered 200 million hectares or 36% of the total area of the country barren (Table 27.1). It causes the extinction of species and accentuates climate change. Impacts of Soil Degradation The effect of soil degradation is not detected as serious global problem up to 2020. Soil Nutrient Mining iii. The factors below can trigger degradation or deterioration of the soil; For example, physical causes involve the depletion of fertile topsoil due to water or wind erosion. Silting of drainage, canals, rivers and reservoirs results in increased floods and droughts. It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Recent satellite data show that the area under pasture land is severely degraded. What causes this to happen? Out of 100 per cent potentially active lands only 44 per cent are available for cultivation and 56 per cent of land are non-available for cultivation. As much as it’s a concern associated with natural environments in arid and semi-arid areas, the UN recognizes the fact that drought and aridity are anthropogenic induced factors especially as an outcome of soil degradation. Destruction of natural vegetation cover is a major factor responsible for erosion of soils by water and wind. In irrigation these salts are dissolved in soil water and rise to the surface through capillary action. The reduction of soil nutrients because of alkalinity or acidity or waterlogging are all categorized under the chemical components of soil degradation. The fatal nematodes threaten potato cultivation in the Nilgiris and, if not controlled they may pose threat to potato cultivation in that area. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Once soil erosion occurs, it is more likely to happen again. It also sends soil-laden water downstream, which can create heavy layers of sediment that prevent streams and rivers from flowing smoothly and can eventually lead to flooding. Soil erosion is a consequence of unsustainable land use and other disturbances, such as fire, mining, or intensive agricultural uses. An area of about 21.7 million hectares of soil is rendered unproductive due to salinity and water-logging. 2. The soil profile is changed; the top soil is turned deep inside the dumps. Natural hazards are the conditions of the physical environment which lead to the existence of a high degradation hazard, for example steep slopes as a hazard for water erosion. Thus soil becomes deficient in essential minerals and this results in productivity loss. Effects of Water Erosion 4. According to a Pereira and Muñoz-Rojas (2017) synthesis, soil erosion is one of the major causes, evidence of, and key variables used to assess and understand land degradation. The degradation or deterioration of soil may be caused by the below factors; Physical factors, for example, loss of fertile topsoil due to water or wind erosion. The latest data provided by Sehgal and Abrol (1994) show that the total degraded land in India is 187.8 million ha, of which 162.4 million ha is degraded due to soil erosion alone (Table 27.6). Recognizing The Challenges with Preventing Or Solving Land Degradation Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? Content Guidelines 2. Michael McNeill shares his observations. All these physical factors produces different types of soil erosion (mainly water and wind erosion) and soil detachment actions, and t… Expansion of canal irrigation is also directly concerned with widespread water-logging and salinity problems in arid and semiarid areas. The nodulation and growth of some leguminous crops and nitrogen fixation are inhibited by different pesticides. If the loss of nutrients due to soil erosion is included, the loss of nutrients from top soil is 43 million tonnes. Vegetation cover primarily promotes the binding of the soil together and soil formation, hence when it is removed it considerably affects the capabilities of the soil such as aeration, water holding capacity, and biological activity. Thus, soil erosion is a continuous process and may occur either at a relatively unnoticed rate or an alarming rate contributing to copious loss of the topsoil. Examples of marginal lands are steep sloppy lands, shallow or sandy soils and the lands in dry and semi-dry areas. Cultivation in Steep Slopes July 22, 2012 Footer text here17 18. The rates of soil erosion and the loss of soil nutrients, as well as the topsoil, are highly contributed by overgrazing. Soil erosion is the most serious precursor of soil degradation that comes with global implications. In the past 150 years half the topsoil on the planet has been lost. When trees are removed by logging, infiltration rates become elevated and the soil remains bare and exposed to erosion and the buildup of toxicities. A diagrammatic representation of the causes of soil acidity showing the importance of product removal and nitrate leaching in the process . Soil degradation, defined as lowering and losing of soil functions, is becoming more and more serious worldwide in recent decades, and poses a threat to agricultural production and terrestrial ecosystem. Waterlogging and soil salinization is the important causes of soil degradation in Northwest India, particularly the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Organic matter is rapidly decomposed and leached or eroded by heavy rains. Mining disturbs the physical, chemical and biological features of the soil. are conditions cause water logging. It is a serious environmental problem. It is well known that mono cropping (growing the same crop on the same land year after year) often leads to increasing attack of pests and diseases. There are several physical factors contributing to soil degradation distinguished by the manners in which they change the natural composition and structure of the soil. Deforestation: Forests play an important role in maintaining fertility of soil by shedding their leaves … Number lacks the knowledge of its precise definition of product removal and nitrate in. 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